Factors related to the start of Hookah smoking in adult male Turkmen: A Qualitative Study
Authors: Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Reza Negarandeh
Background and Aim: Hookah smoking has grown considerably among Iranian Turkmen in the past two decades. The reasons for this increase in the consumption of hookah are unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the factors related to the start of hookah smoking in men with Turkmen ethnicity.
Methods: This qualitative study was conducted between February and June 2018 in Turkmen cities of Golestan provinces in Iran. The study participants included 26 male Turkmen water pipe smokers with various ages, occupation and education. Study data were collected through individual and group interviews and were analyzed by content analysis. Data management was done by software, MAXQDA version 10.
Results: In this study, 26 hookah smoker men with the age range of 20-45 years were interviewed. The age range of the participants at the time of starting hookah consumption varied from 14 to 25 years. Based on qualitative data, the reasons for the start of hookah smoking in male Turkmen were classified in nine main categories: Hookah smoking friends, unemployment and blaming unemployed people in small neighborhoods, curiosity and sense of adulthood, consumption of hookah by father or brother, cultural influence, fewer perceived risks compared to other substances, sensory perceptions related to hookah, more social acceptance compared to other substances, and easy access to hookah.
Conclusion: Individual, interpersonal and environmental factors play important roles in the start of hookah smoking among male Turkmen. Developing health policies based on the above factors can be effective in adopting hookah prevention and control strategies.
Keywords: Water pipe smoking, Contributing factors, Turkmen, Iran, Qualitative study